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    RED FLAG EXERCICE EDIÇÃO 2013 - 21 Jan à 1 Fev

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    RED FLAG EXERCICE EDIÇÃO 2013 - 21 Jan à 1 Fev

    Mensagem  Cnshark em Ter Nov 27 2012, 22:52

    EXERCICIO MILITAR RED FLAG


    Red Flag é um treino de um exercício de combate aéreo avançado localizado na Base Aérea de Nellis, ao norte de Las Vegas no Estado de Nevada e Base Aérea de Eielson no Alaska nos Estados Unidos da América(EUA).
    Iniciado em 1975, o exercicio visa o combate do poder aéreo, numa area determinada de 22.224 Km de espaço aereo e espaço terrestre de 11.736Km² criando um ambiente de guerra para as Forças Aereas Norte Americas "USAF" e Forças Aliadas, contado com Forças Especias diversificadas Norte Americanas.Sua duração é de duas semanas e o combate e em grande escala.


    [jsutify]O Esquadrão de Combat 414th da Base Aérea de Nellis AFB é responsável por executar e administrar o Exercicio avançado Red Flag e o programa de treinos para a guerra simulada.[/justify]

    {justify]Mais de 90 tipos de aeronaves como caracteristicas diferentes para missões específicas decolarão duas vezes por dia e ficarão mais de 8 horas em vôos diarios (noturnos) conforme plano de vôo e execução da missão de combate.[/justify]



    The Red Flag exercises, conducted in four to six cycles a year by the 414th Combat Training Squadron of the 57th Wing, are very realistic aerial war games. The purpose is to train pilots from the U.S., NATO and other allied countries for real combat situations. This includes the use of "enemy" hardware and live ammunition for bombing exercises within the Nevada Test and Training Range.


    As missões criadas pelo Esquadrão de Combate 414th (Red Flag) maximiza o combate direcionado as caracterÍsticas de aeronave e munição envolvidas, resultando aos participantes um treino de combate realístico envolvendo e encorajando o livre intercambio de idéias.
    ******To accomplish this, combat units from the United States and its allied countries engage in realistic combat training scenarios carefully conducted within the Nellis Range Complex. The Nellis Range complex is located northwest of Las Vegas and covers an area of 60 nautical miles (111 km) by 100 nautical miles (190 km), approximately half the area of Switzerland. This space allows the exercises to be on a very large scale.******(REVER DISTÂNCIA CORRETA)




    In a typical Red Flag exercise, Blue Forces (friendly) engage Red Forces (hostile) in realistic combat situations. Blue Forces are made up of units from the Air Combat Command, Air Mobility Command, United States Air Forces Europe, Pacific Air Forces, Air National Guard, Air Force Reserve Command, U.S. Army, U.S. Navy, U.S. Marine Corps, Royal Air Force, and the Royal Canadian Air Force, as well as other allied air forces. They are led by a Blue Forces commander, who coordinates the units in an "employment plan". Red Forces (adversary) are composed of the 57th Wing's 57th Adversary Tactics Group, flying F-16s (64th Aggressor Squadron) and F-15s (65th Aggressor Squadron) to provide realistic air threats through the emulation of opposition tactics. The Red Forces are also augmented by other U.S. Air Force, U.S. Navy and U.S. Marine Corps units flying in concert with the 507th Air Defense Aggressor Squadron's electronic ground defenses and communications, and radar jamming equipment. The 527th Space Aggressor Squadron (Active Duty) and 26th Space Aggressor Squadron (Air Force Reserve) also provide GPS jamming. Additionally, the Red Force command and control organization simulates a realistic enemy integrated air defense system (IADS).

    A key element of Red Flag operations is the Red Flag Measurement and Debriefing System. RFMDS is a computer hardware and software network which provides real-time monitoring, post-mission reconstruction of maneuvers and tactics, participant pairings and integration of range targets and simulated threats. Blue Force commanders objectively assess mission effectiveness and validate lessons learned from data provided by the RFMDS. A typical flag exercise year includes ten Green Flags (a close air support exercise with the Army), one Canadian Maple Flag (operated by the Royal Canadian Air Force) and four Red Flags. Each Red Flag exercise normally involves a variety of fighter interdiction, attack, air superiority, defense suppression, airlift, air refueling and reconnaissance missions. In a 12-month period, more than 500 aircraft fly more than 20,000 sorties, while training more than 5,000 aircrews and 14,000 support and maintenance personnel.

    Before a "flag" begins, the Red Flag staff conducts a planning conference where unit representatives and planning staff members develop the size and scope of their participation. All aspects of the exercise, including billeting of personnel, transportation to Nellis, range coordination, munitions scheduling, and development of training scenarios, are designed to be as realistic as possible, fully exercising each participating unit's capabilities and objectives.


    The origin of Red Flag was the unacceptable performance of U.S. Air Force pilots in air combat maneuvering (ACM) (air-to-air combat) during the Vietnam War in comparison to previous wars. Air combat over North Vietnam between 1965 and 1973 led to an overall exchange ratio (ratio of enemy aircraft shot down to the number of own aircraft lost to enemy fighters) of 2.2:1 (for a period of time in June and July 1972 during Operation Linebacker the ratio was less than 1:1).

    Among the several factors resulting in this disparity was a lack of realistic ACM training. USAF pilots were not versed in the core values and basics of ACM due to the belief that BVR (Beyond Visual Range) missile engagements and equipment made close-in maneuvering combats obsolete. As a result of this BVR-only mindset that reached its zenith in the early 1960s, nearly all USAF pilots and weapons system officers (WSO) of the period were unpracticed in maneuvering against dissimilar aircraft because of a concurrent Air Force emphasis on flying safety.

    An Air Force analysis known as Project Red Baron II showed that a pilot's chances of survival in combat dramatically increased after he had completed 10 combat missions. As a result, Red Flag was created in 1975 to offer USAF pilots and weapon systems officers the opportunity to fly 10 realistically simulated combat missions in a safe training environment with measurable results. Many U.S. air crews had also fallen victim to SAMs during the Vietnam War and Red Flag exercises provided pilots and WSOs experience in this regime as well.

    The concept of Colonel Richard "Moody" Suter became the driving force in Red Flag's implementation, persuading the then-Tactical Air Command commander, General Robert J. Dixon, to adopt the program. At Nellis, Suter was well-known and well-liked. The first Red Flag exercise came off on Gen Dixon's schedule in November 1975. On 1 March 1976, the 4440th Tactical Fighter Training Group (Red Flag) was chartered with Col P.J. White as the first commander, Lt Col Marty Mahrt as vice commander, and Lt Col David Burner as Director of Operations. This small crew under Col White's leadership undertook the task of firmly establishing the program.

    The "aggressor squadrons", the opponents who flew against the pilots undergoing training, were selected from the top fighter pilots in the U.S. Air Force. These pilots were trained to fly according to the tactical doctrines of the Soviet Union and other enemies of the period, in order to better simulate what then-TAC, as well as USAFE, PACAF and other NATO pilots and WSOs would likely encounter in real combat against a Soviet, Warsaw Pact, or a Soviet-proxy adversary. The aggressors were originally equipped with readily available T-38 Talon aircraft to simulate MiG-21, the T-38 being similar in terms of size and performance. F-5 Tiger II fighters, painted in color schemes commonly found on Soviet aircraft, were added shortly thereafter and became the mainstay until the F-16 was introduced.

    Today, the 414th Combat Training Squadron (414 CTS) is the unit currently tasked with running Red Flag exercises, while the 64th Aggressor Squadron (64 AGRS) and the 65th Aggressor Squadron (65 AGRS) also based at Nellis AFB use F-16 and F-15 aircraft to emulate, respectively, the MiG-29 Fulcrum and Su-30 Flanker. These aircraft continue to be painted in the various camouflage schemes of potential adversaries.

    The U.S. Air Force's Red Flag approach differs from that initially employed during the Vietnam War by the United States Navy to improve fighter aircrew performance. Rather than a large, multi-squadron exercise, the Navy established the United States Navy Fighter Weapons School (more widely known as TOPGUN) in 1969 at the former NAS Miramar, California to "train the trainers," with Navy and Marine Corps squadrons in the Fleet, selecting their best air crews for training. Graduates returned to the Fleet to share lessons learned with their fellow pilots and naval flight officers. Navy and Marine Corps adversary squadrons were also later established at fighter and attack Master Jet Bases (NAS Miramar (now MCAS Miramar), NAS Oceana, NAS Lemoore, MCAS Yuma, NAS Key West and NAS Fallon, as well as the former NAS Cecil Field, for Fleet squadrons to conduct dissimilar air combat training as part of unit level training. These squadrons initially flew the A-4 Skyhawk. The Navy and Marine Corps later added the F-5E/F to its adversary lineup and briefly included the F-21 Kfir. Other naval adversary aircraft have include specially built F-16Ns, the F-14 and the F/A-18. Today, Carrier Air Wing level training, analogous to the USAF Red Flag program, is conducted at NAS Fallon, where the Naval Strike and Air Warfare Center (NSAWC), of which TOPGUN in now part, operates dissimilar adversary aircraft (F-16 and F/A-18), while a collocated squadron, VFC-13, flies the F-5E and F-5F.

    The United States Marine Corps (USMC) conducts Weapons and Tactics Instructor (WTI) exercises at Marine Corps Air Station Yuma twice a year as part of the WTI course conducted by MAWTS-1 and uses locally-based VMFT-401, the only USMC adversary squadron. Originally equipped with the F-21 Kfir, it now operates the F-5E and F-5F.

    In 2009, the 416th FLTS from Edwards AFB, CA, a part of the Air Force Material Command participated.


    Participating countriesOnly countries considered close allies of the United States take part in Red Flag exercises. So far, the countries to have participated in these exercises are:

    Australia
    Belgium
    Brazil (July 1998 and August 2008)
    Canada
    Chile (July 1998)
    Colombia (July 2012)
    Denmark
    Egypt
    France
    Germany
    Greece (October 2008)
    India
    Israel
    Italy
    Japan
    New Zealand
    Netherlands
    Norway
    Pakistan (2010)
    Poland (June 2012) [1]
    Portugal (March 2000)
    Sweden
    Singapore
    Saudi Arabia
    South Korea
    Spain
    Thailand
    Turkey
    United Arab Emirates
    United Kingdom
    Venezuela



    The exercise will include U.S. forces and aircraft from:

    - 57th Wing, 64th Aggressors Squadron F-16Cs, Nellis AFB, Nev.
    - 57th Wing, 65th Aggressors Squadron F-15Cs, Nellis AFB, Nev.
    - 138th Fighter Wing, 125th Fighter Squadron F-16s, Tulsa, Okla.
    - United States Navy, VFA-25 F-18Es, NAS Lemoore, Calif.
    - United States Navy, VAQ-138 EA-18G Growlers, NAS Whidbey Island, Wash.
    - 366th Fighter Wing, 389th Fighter Squadron F-15Es, Mountain. Home AFB, Idaho.
    - 2nd Bomb Wing, 20th Bomb Squadron B-52s, Barksdale AFB, La.
    - 7th Bomb Wing, 9th Bomb Squadron B-1s, Dyess AFB, Texas.
    - 52nd Fighter Wing, 480th Fighter Squadron F-16CJs, Spangdalem AFB, Germany.
    - 23rd Wing, 41st Rescue Squadron HH-60s, Moody AFB, Ga.
    - 23rd Wing, 71st Rescue Squadron HC-130s, Moody AFB, Ga.
    - 552nd Air Combat Wing, 960th Airborne Air Control Squadron E-3s, Tinker AFB, Okla.
    - 22nd Air Refueling Wing, KC135s, McConnell AFB, Kan.

    In addition to U.S. aircraft, Netherlands' F-16s, Singapore's F-16s and Sweden's Grippens will participate.

    For more information about Red Flag, call the Nellis Public Affairs Office at (702) 652-2750*************

      Data/hora atual: Qui Jun 22 2017, 11:19